Decomposing Gender Inequalities in HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania
Drissa Sia, McGill University
Yentéma Onadja, Université de Montréal
Arijit Nandi, McGill University
Anne Foro, École Nationale d’adminstration Publique, Montréal
Timothy Brewer, McGill University
It is important to clarify whether gender inequalities in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS) prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa are explained by differences in the distributions of HIV risk factors, differences in the effects these risk factors, or some combination of both. Data from Demographic and Health Survey and AIDS Indicator Survey coming from Kenya, Lesotho and Tanzania were used. We used extension of Blinder-Oaxaca method to decompose gender inequality in HIV/AIDS prevalence. After adjusting, female gender was associated with a higher prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Kenya and Lesotho, but not in Tanzania. Decomposition analyses demonstrated that in Kenya and Lesotho, gender inequality in HIV/AIDS was attributable to the difference in the effects of characteristics on HIV/AIDS. In Tanzania this inequality was explained by the differences in distributions of HIV risk factors between men and women. These different patterns have important implications for policies to reduce gender inequalities in HIV/AIDS.